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秸秆还田结合氮肥减施对玉米产量和土壤性质的影响

王学敏1,2,刘兴1,2,郝丽英3,解宏图2,5,张广娜4,陈振华1,张玉兰1*   

  1. (1中国科学院沈阳应用生态研究所, 沈阳 110016; 2中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;3东北大学生命科学与健康学院, 沈阳 110169; 4临沂大学农林科学学院, 山东临沂 276005; 5梨树保护性耕作研发基地, 吉林梨树 136507)
  • 出版日期:2020-02-10 发布日期:2020-02-10

Effects of straw returning in conjunction with different nitrogen fertilizer dosages on corn yield and soil properties.

WANG Xue-min1,2, LIU Xing1,2, HAO Li-ying3, XIE Hong-tu2,5, ZHANG Guang-na4, CHEN Zhen-hua1, ZHANG Yu-lan1*   

  1. (1Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China; 2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China; 3College of Life and Health Sciences, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110169, China; 4Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water and Soil Conservation and Environmental Protection, Linyi University, Linyi 276005, Shandong, China; 5The Conservation Tillage Research and Development Station of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lishu 136507, Jilin, China).
  • Online:2020-02-10 Published:2020-02-10

摘要: 农业生物质还田同时结合减少化肥施用量的措施能有效改善土壤质量。基于东北黑土的特殊性和重要性,本研究在中国科学院保护性耕作研发基地(吉林省)设置秸秆还田方式与氮肥水平相结合的裂区试验,综合分析作物产量、土壤((0~20 cm))理化性质与生物学性质,探讨秸秆还田基础上减少氮肥施用量的可行性。主区包括6个处理:秸秆移除(CK)、全量秸秆覆盖免耕(NT)、全量秸秆粉碎直接还田(SD)、全量秸秆腐解还田(SC)、全量秸秆炭化还田(BC)和9/10秸秆+1/10腐熟物组合还田(SDC)。副区包括3个氮肥水平处理:当地常规氮磷钾化学肥料(N100)、氮肥减量20%(N80,还田秸秆氮含量接近氮肥20%)和氮肥减量40%(N60)。试验处理1年后的结果表明,秸秆还田方式与氮水平处理对玉米生物量、玉米产量、耕层土壤(0~20 cm)理化性质(pH值、有机碳SOC、全氮TN、全磷TP)和酶活性(脱氢酶、α-葡糖苷酶、β-葡糖苷酶、N-乙酰氨基葡糖苷酶、酸性磷酸单酯酶和碱性磷酸单酯酶)均表现出明显的交互作用,秸秆处理具有显著的主效应(P<0.05),氮肥水平对所测指标均没有显著影响。化肥单独施用时,氮肥减量处理降低玉米生物量和产量,对土壤pH值、SOC、TN和N乙酰氨基葡糖苷酶和碱性磷酸酶活性影响不显著,提高TP含量,增强脱氢酶、β-葡糖苷酶和酸性磷酸酶活性。秸秆还田配合常规化肥施用(N100)对土壤pH值、SOC、TN和TP(P<0.05)均有一定幅度提升趋势,对脱氢酶、α-葡糖苷酶、β-葡糖苷酶和酸性磷酸单酯酶活性有一定增强作用,仅有少数处理未达到差异显著。相同秸秆还田条件下,氮肥减量施用(N80,N60)对玉米生物量和产量没有负影响,对土壤pH值、SOC、TN和TP(P<0.05)均有一定幅度提升趋势,NT结合氮肥减量处理均提升β-葡糖苷酶和酸性磷酸酶活性,SC结合氮肥减量处理显著提升β-葡糖苷酶、酸性磷酸酶和碱性磷酸酶活性,SDC结合氮肥减量处理显著增强β-葡糖苷酶和碱性磷酸酶活性。因此,短期秸秆还田结合减氮处理在稳产同时减弱土壤酸化程度,且保持SOC、TN和TP含量不降低,对土壤养分库容、元素供应及其转化都有一定的改良效应。

关键词: 间伐强度, 种子特征, 黄桥林区, 结实, 辽东栎, 近自然经营

Abstract: The combination of returning agricultural biomass into soil and reducing application dosage of chemical fertilizer can effectively improve soil quality. Considering the speciality and importance of black soil in Northeast China, a splitplot design experiment was set up in the Conservation Tillage Research and Development Station of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (black soil area, Jilin Province), which combined different straw returning modes with nitrogen fertilizer (N) addition levels. We analyzed crop yields, physicochemical properties and biological properties (0-20 cm) of soils. The feasibility of reducing nitrogen fertilizer dosage on the base of straw returning was discussed. There were six treatments of straw returning modes in the main plots: control (CK), full straw mulching without tillage (NT), crushing straw incorporation directly (SD), addition of compost from straw insitu (SC), addition of biochar from straw insitu (BC), and 9/10 straw +1/10 compost (SDC). The subplots, i.e., fertilizer dosages included: conventional NPK chemical fertilizer (N100); 20% reduction of N fertilizer (N80) (N content of straw was close to 20%); 40% reduction of N (N60, with conventional phosphorus, potassium fertilizer). Straw cooperation modes and N levels significantly interacted to affect maize biomass, maize yield, soil physical and chemical properties (pH, organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP)), and enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, β-1,4-N-acetylglucosidase, acid phosphomonoesterase and alkaline phosphomonoesterase). Straw cooperation had significant main effects (P<0.05), while N dosage had no significant effect on the examined variables. Among treatments with chemical application alone, N reduction treatment decreased maize biomass and yield and enhanced TP content and activities of N-acetylglucosidase and alkaline phosphatase, but had no significant effect on pH, SOC, TN, and activities of dehydrogenase, αglucosidase, βglucosidase, and acid phosphatase. Straw returning in conjunction with conventional NPK fertilizer (N100) increased soil pH, SOC, TN, and TP (P<0.05), and enhanced activities of dehydrogenase, α-glucosidase and acid phosphomonoesterase to a certain extent, with some treatments having no such effects. Straw returning modes combined with N reduction (N80, N60) had no negative impact on the maize biomass and yield, and enhanced soil pH, SOC, TN and TP (P<0.05). NT with N reduction enhanced β-glucosidase and acid phosphatase activities. SC with N reduction significantly increased activities of β-glucosidase, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase. SDC with N reduction significantly enhanced activities of β-glucosidase and alkaline phosphatase. It is concluded that short-term combined treatment of straw returning and nitrogen reduction application stabilized crop yield, slowed soil acidification, and maintained SOC, TN and TP contents. Therefore, straw cooperation in conjunction with N application reduction has great ameliorative effects on soil nutrient storage, supply, and transformation.

Key words: Quercus liaotungensis, closetonatural forest management., fruiting, Huanglong and Qiaoshan mountains,  thinning intensity, seed characteristics