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    Nutritional components and utilization values of golden apple snails (Pomacea canaliculata) in different habitats.
    LUO Du-1, MU Xi-dong1, SONG Hong-mei1, GU Dang-en1, YANG Ye-xin1, WANG Xue-jie1, LUO Jian-ren1, HU Yin-chang1**, ZHANG Jia-en2
    cje    2012, 31 (08): 2004-2010.  
    Abstract10272)      PDF(pc) (533KB)(603)       Save
    This paper analyzed the nutritional components and amino acids composition of black and white fleshcolored golden apple snails (Pomacea canaliculata) collected from different habitats (fish pond, ditch, and paddy field), aimed to compare the differences in the nutritional components of these snails and explore the potential utilization values of the snails during the process of integrated control. The snails in fish pond had the highest contents of water and crude fat, those in ditch had the highest ash content, while those in paddy field had the lowest contents of water, crude fat, and crude protein. The crude protein content of the snails in ditch and pond was higher than 13%, and the snails in pond had the highest contents of total amino acids, essential amino acids, and flavor amino acids and the highest index of essential amino acids, but the proportion of essential amino acids was the lowest. The snails in paddy field had higher contents of essential amino acids and flavor amino acids than the snails in ditch, and the index of the essential amino acids of the snails in different habitats was in the order of fish pond > paddy field > ditch. Overall, white flesh snails had higher nutritional values than black flesh ones, and the nutritional composition of the snails essential amino acids was similar to that of fish meal (CP 53.5%). It was suggested that in the utilization of golden apple snails, their flesh color and origin should be fully considered.
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    Construction of the EWE model of Futian mangrove wetland ecosystem.
    CHOU Qing-chuan1, XU Hua-lin2, LIU Jun3, SHI Xiu-hua4**
    cje   
    Methods of measuring plant community functional diversity. 
    cje    2011, 30 (09): 2053-2059.  
    Abstract6056)      PDF(pc) (484KB)(1422)       Save
    Plant community functional diversity is based on plant traits, and has been proposed as a key component of predicting ecosystem function. According to the constitution of species diversity, plant community functional diversity is usually described by functional richness, functional evenness, and functional divergence. This paper introduced these three kinds of indices used in plant community ecology, in hopes of better understanding the relationships between biodiversity, environment, and ecosystem functioning.
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    Dynamic calculation and analysis of ecological footprint of Anhui Province from 1990 to 1999
    ZHANG Hongxia; SU Qin; ZHANG Jinhe; WANG Qun
    cje   
    Abstract5895)      PDF(pc) (570KB)(1066)       Save
    With ecological footprint method,this paper made a time-sequence calculation of the ecological footprints of Anhui Province from 1990 to 1999,incorporated the dynamic characteristics of the Province’s resources utilization into ecological footprint model,and based on these,analyzed the development trend of this Province.The results showed that in 1999,the ecological footprint was not in sustainable development status on the scales of the Province and the whole country,but sustainable on the global scale.From 1990 to 1999,the per capita ecological footprint and per capita GDP of Anhui Province kept increasing,while the ecological footprint of ten thousand Yuan GDP presented downward trend,suggesting that the development status of Anhui Province from 1990 to 1999 was not optimistic.The available ways for the sustainable development of Anhui Province in the future were put forward.
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    Assessment of urban forest economic benefits based on i-Tree model: Research progress.
    cje    2011, 30 (04): 810-817.  
    Abstract5847)      PDF(pc) (551KB)(900)       Save
    Urban forest provides numerous benefits in improving the environmental quality in and around urban areas. To quantify the ecosystem services of urban forest is an important prerequisite to make the maximum use of the services. With the advancement of research work, the methods for evaluation urban forest economic benefits have developed from CLTA method, Burnley method, carbon duty method, and reforestation cost method to model calculation method. In this paper, the i-Tree model developed by the USDA Forest Service in 2006 was introduced. Comparing with other models such as CITYgreen model, the i-Tree model has many irreplaceable advantages, and been widely used in international urban forest research but not in China. Here, the research and application progress of this model were described and evaluated from the aspects of the benefits quantified by the UFORE and STRATUM modules in the model, and, based on our domestic practices, the prospects and main questions in using this model in China were discussed.
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    Density dependence-determined plant biomass allocation pattern.
    cje    2011, 30 (08): 1579-1589.  
    Abstract5752)      PDF(pc) (895KB)(993)       Save
    A simulation experiment under natural condition was conducted to study the dynamics of biomass accumulation, biomass allocation percentage, biomass ratio, and morphological traits of Allium cepa var. proliferum at different plant densities (36, 49, 64, 121 allocatione to and 225 individuals·m-2), aimed to analyze the effects of density-dependence on the biomass allocation pattern of A. cepa var. proliferum. With increasing plant density, the biomass allocation to above-ground part, leaf, and sheath increased, but less to  below-ground part and bulb, while the blomass allocation to root biomass remained constant. The biomass ratios of above- to below-ground parts, sheath to leaf, root to sheath, bulb to root, bulb to leaf, bulb to sheath, and bulb to shoot exhibited apparent density-dependence, but the ratios of root to leaf and root to shoot remained unchanged. With the growth of plant, the ratios of sheath to leaf and bulb to root increased gradually, ratios of root to sheath, root to leaf, and root to shoot were in reverse, ratios of bulb to leaf, bulb to sheath, and bulb to shoot increased after an initial decrease, and the ratio of above- to below-ground parts decreased after an initial increase. Plant density had significant negative effects on specific leaf area (P<0.001), positive effects on leaf area and root length (P<0.05), but less effects on specific root length (P>0.05). All the results suggested that intraspecific competition exerted great influence on the resource allocation inside plant bodies. In response to different plant densities, the biomass allocation patterns displayed plasticity. With the increase of plant density, the photosynthates allocated more to above-ground vegetative organs, with the cost of decreasing the photosynthates allocation to below-ground asexsual reproductive organ. It was appeared that the “optimal partitioning theory” was only applicable at the absence of plant competition between individual plants. When the competition between plants was present, the population density and density-dependent regulation were the important factors determining plant biomass allocation pattern.
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    Reproductive strategies of Great Tit and Willow Tit in artificial nest boxes in Xiaolongmen forest park of Beijing.
    cje    2011, 30 (07): 1575-1578.  
    Abstract5507)      PDF(pc) (392KB)(521)       Save
    From March to July 2009, an investigation was conducted to compare the reproductive parameters of Great Tit (Parus major) and Willow Tit (P. montanus) in artificial nest boxes in Xiaolongmen forest park of Beijing. A total of 100 nest boxes were hung at forest edge, 19 and 11 of which were occupied by P. major and P. montanus, respectively. The clutch size of P. major (8.21±0.25 eggs, n=19) was much larger than that of P. montanus  (6.18±0.23 eggs, n=11), but the hatching period of P. major (13617±0.83 d, n=12) was shorter than that of P. montanus (14.22±0.44 d, n=10) (P<0.01). There were no significant differences on the egg mass, egg size, nestling success, and fledging success between the two tit species (P>0.05). The nesting success of P. montanus (54.5%, n=11) was much higher than that of P. major (27.0%, n=19). It was suggested that P. major could have higher clutch size but lower fledging success, while P. montanus could have lower clutch size but higher fledging success.
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    Competitions between wetland dominant plants in water-level fluctuation zone.
    cje    2011, 30 (09): 1863-1867.  
    Abstract5421)      PDF(pc) (523KB)(705)       Save
    Competitions between plants run through plants whole life history, bringing important effects on  plant growth and propagation. Based on the plant survey in the water-level fluctuation zone of Three Gorges Reservoir, this paper analyzed the intra- and inter-specific competitions in dominant species Xanthium sibirium community in the zone. The average height of the community was 1.4 m, the coverage was 90%, and the abundance was 40. The highest height of the individuals was 2.6 m, and the maximum biomass was 1622.3 g. The competition intensity between the plants decreased with distance (P<0.01). When the distance between plants was 0-10 cm, the competition was the strongest; when the distance was 0-30 cm, the competition was strong, and inter-specific competition was stronger than intra-specific competition. With the increasing distance between plants, the individual number and plant height of dominant species increased, and the biomass, seed yield, and branch number increased after an initial decrease. The plant species with high propagation capability and growth rate had the advantage in competition, which ensured their survival in the water-level fluctuation zone.
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    Effects of litter composition on soil organisms: A review.
    cje    2011, 30 (06): 1258-1264.  
    Abstract5285)      PDF(pc) (481KB)(1171)       Save
    Litter decomposition is a key process of nutrient cycle and energy flow in ecosystems, while soil microorganism and soil fauna are the main executants of litter decomposition. There are many studies addressed on the roles of soil organisms in litter decomposition, but the studies on the effects of litter decomposition on soil organisms are relatively scarce, and  the interactions between litter decomposition and soil organisms remain largely unclear. This paper briefly reviewed the studies on the effects of litter decomposition on soil microorganism and soil fauna, and discussed the key underlying mechanisms. The effects of litter decomposition on soil microorganism not only depend on litter properties (type or composition) and litter’s fragmentation degree, but also relate to the litter’s buried location. Many studies indicated that litter decomposition had remarkable effects on the community structure of soil fauna, and these effects were mainly from the alternations of soil organisms’ food source and habitat. It was proposed that the future research should focus on the long-term experimental studies across regions, integrated research on litter decomposition and ecosystem processes, and affecting mechanisms of litter decomposition on soil organisms.
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    Breeding behavior of sympatric silky starlings and white-cheeked starlings.
    JIANG Xue-lei1, WANG Rong-rong1, LI Zhong-qiu2**, ZHANG Zhi-yuan2
    cje    2012, 31 (08): 2011-2015.  
    Abstract5260)      PDF(pc) (522KB)(411)       Save
    Silky starling (Sturnus sericeus) is endemic in East Asia, but little is known about its breeding behavior. From March to June 2011, an experiment with artificial nest box was conducted to study the breeding ecology of silky starlings and that of sympatric whitecheeked starlings (S. cineraceus) at the old and new campus of Nanjing University. A total of 40 nest boxes were installed, of which, 33 boxes (84.6%) were occupied by the starlings, and 17 broods (51.5%) were successfully hatched. We videotaped the reproductive behavior at three nests of silky starlings and three nests of whitecheeked starlings. The clutch size of silky starlings ranged from 6 to 7 eggs while that of whitecheeked starlings varied from 5 to 7 eggs, and the eggs of whitecheeked starlings were significantly larger than those of silky starlings. Silky starlings had a longer nestling period than whitecheeked starlings (with a mean of 20 days vs. 16 days), and also, an obviously higher feeding rate. Compared with whitecheeked starlings, silky starlings were more vigilant and aggressive during their nestling period, and thus, could have more constructive parental care mechanism than whitecheeked starlings. In addition, this paper first reported the occurrence of silky starlings intraspecific nest parasitism.
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    Effects of air temperature during rice grain-filling period on the formation of rice grain yield and its quality.
    GONG Jin-long, ZHANG Hong-cheng**, HU Ya-jie, LONG Hou-yuan, CHANG Yong, WANG Yan, XING Zhi-peng, HUO Zhong-yang
    cje   
    Identification of peanut root exudates and their allelopathic effects. 
    cje    2011, 30 (12): 2803-2808.  
    Abstract5207)      PDF(pc) (1196KB)(706)       Save
    The root exudates of peanut collected by a modified continuous collecting device and XAD-4 ion exchange resin were identified by GC-MS, and their allelophatic effects on Ralstonia solanacearum were studied. The root exudates mainly contained acetophenone, glycerol, benzoic acid, 3,5-dimethyl benzaldehyde, stearic acid, palmitic acid, and lactic acid, among which, only acetophenone had obvious promotion effect on the growth of R. solanacearum at concentration <0.1 g·L-1, and significant inhibitory effect at concentration >0.1 g·L-1. These findings could provide a credible basis for using acetophenone to control the occurrence of R. solanacearum.
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    Redundancy in Ecosystems and the Model for Trophic Structure
    Dang Chenglin, Huang Ruifu
    cje    1997, (4): 39-46.  
    Abstract5180)      PDF(pc) (318KB)(369)       Save
    There are at least species and individuals (genetic structure) redundancy of population within each trophic level of ecosystems. By use of redundancy theory,authors probed into trophic structure and its model.The model for trophic structure combining advantages of food web and those of trophic level could reveal inherent relation between trophic structure and stability of ecosystems. The trophic structure of ecosystems is a huge and complex system with series_parallel redundency. Within each trophic level,individuals of a population and most species are arranged in parallel, but different trophic levels are linked in series way. Redundant property of the trophic structure determines that the ecosystems are stable or resistant and at some times fragile to a degree.
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    Epiphytic plants: Their responses to global change and roles in bioindication.
    cje    2011, 30 (01): 145-154.  
    Abstract5179)      PDF(pc) (594KB)(804)       Save
    Epiphytic plants are a group of plants that live on host plants without absorbing nutrients and water from the hosts. Because of their specific morphological and structural features and ecological habits, epiphytic plants are very sensitive and vulnerable to environmental changes. To study the response of epiphytic plants to global change and their roles in bioindication has important guiding significance and application value. This paper reviewed the research progress in the possible responses of epiphytic plants to global change events, including atmospheric composition change, climate change, and land use/cover change, and summarized the related research methods. It was suggested that in the future, field control experiment and simulation study should be carried out by using standard and quantitative methods combined with the development and application of new instruments, the effective database should be built from long-term and systematic monitoring in global range, and the quantitative indices and corresponding models relating to the response of epiphytic plants to climate change should be developed.
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    Research advances on biodiversity and ecosystem stability.
    cje    2010, 29 (12): 2507-2513.  
    Abstract5167)      PDF(pc) (457KB)(1353)       Save
    The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem stability is a hot subject in ecological science. Focused on this issue, the research history and different academic viewpoints were reviewed, and the achievements in the theoretical and experimental fields as well as the existing problems were elaborated. In terms of theoretical study, the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem stability is complicated, because the concepts of the two are multifold. In terms of experimental study, the existing research results only emphasize a few types of diversity and ecosystem stability, and rarely uncover the mechanisms resposible for ecosystem stability. In the studies of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, the important problem is not merely the conclusions, but also the mechanisms hidden behind. A major future challenge is to understand how the biodiversity dynamics, ecosystem processes, and abiotic factors interact.
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    Heavy metals in orchard and vegetable garden soils of Sanya City: Spatial distribution and contamination evaluation.
    cje    2010, 29 (02): 382-386.  
    Abstract5158)      PDF(pc) (2720KB)(722)       Save
    Through field sampling and by using standard comparison and geoaccumulation index methods, the heavy metals contamination status of surface soils in the orchards and vegetable gardens of Sanya City was evaluated. In the test surface soils, the average concentrations of Hg, Cd, Cr, Pb and As were all lower than the Grade Ⅱ of China National Environment Quality Standard (GB 15618-1995), but those of Hg, Cd and Pb were higher than the background values of farmlands in Hainan Island, showing a slight pollution in certain areas. The variation coefficients of the metals were all > 1, suggesting their extremely uneven distribution in the soils. The spatial distribution patterns of the five heavy metals obt
    ained by using Kriging algorithm approach displayed spatial heterogeneity of soil heavy metals contamination, which provided guidance for the sustainable development and utilization of orchards and vegetable gardens in Sanya City.
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    Cadmium and chromium concentrations and their ecological risks in the water body of Taihu Lake, East China.
    cje    2011, 30 (10): 2290-2296.  
    Abstract5116)      PDF(pc) (3488KB)(704)       Save
    By using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), the exposure levels of the typical heavy metals cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) in the water body of Taihu Lake were monitored in September 2010. Based on the analysis of the exposure levels of the Cd and Cr and their chronic toxic effects on the aquatic organisms, the ecological risks of the two heavy metals were assessed by the method of safety threshold. Both Cd and Cr were detected in the Taihu Lake water body, and the average exposure concentrations of Cd and Cr were 0.85 μg·L-1 and 40.04 μg·L-1, respectively. Biological evidences and previous researches documented that aquatic organisms were more sensitive to Cd than to Cr, and the safety threshold of Cr was greater than 1 whereas that of Cd was slightly less than 1. According to the safety thresholds,  Cr in Taihu Lake had produced definite ecological risk to the aquatic organisms, whereas Cd didn’t produce obvious risk. Thereby, enough attention should be paid to the relatively low toxicity Cr because of its greater ecological risk at high exposure concentration.
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    Toxic effects of trichlorfon on perch Lateolabrax maculatus.
    cje    2011, 30 (07): 1484-1490.  
    Abstract5110)      PDF(pc) (2048KB)(678)       Save
    In order to provide reference data for the disease control in Chinese perch (Lateolabrax maculatus) culture, this paper studied the acute toxicity of different concentration trichlorfon to the perch fry and juvenile. The GSH and MDA concentrations and SOD, CAT, GOT, GPT, and AChE activities in juvenile liver were determined, and the total dyskaryosis and micronuclear rates of juvenile erythrocytes were calculated. The LC50 for the perch fry exposed to trichlorfon was 7.76 mg·L-1 (24 h), 3.02 mg·L-1 (48 h), 1.74 mg·L-1 (72 h) and 1.58 mg·L-1 (96 h), and the safe concentration was 0.14 mg·L-1; while the LC50 for the perch juvenile exposed to trichlorfon was 10.96 mg·L-1 (24 h), 6.15 mg·L-1 (48 h), 3.98 mg·L-1 (72 h) and 2.89 mg·L-1 (96 h), and the safe concentration was 0.58 mg·L-1. Lytic necrosis was observed in the liver tissues of agonal individuals. After exposed to trichlorfon for 48 h, and with the increase of trichlorfon concentration, the juvenile liver’s GSH concentration decreased first, then recovered, and decreased again, MDA concentration increased first and recovered then, SOD activity had no significant difference with that of the control group, CAT activity decreased first and recovered then, GPT activity maintained at lower level, GOT activity of 1.35 and 2.70 mg·L-1  trichlorfon groups decreased, and AChE activity had a slight increase after an initial decrease. The GSH and MDA concentrations and the CAT, GPT、GOT and AChE activities were sensitive, while the SOD activity was not sensitive to the trichlorfon stress. After exposed to 1.45 mg·L-1 and 0.73 mg·L-1 of trichlorfon for 96 h, the juvenile’s total erythrocyte dyskaryosis rate and micronuclear rate were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those of the control group respectively.
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    Dynamic analysis of land use and ecosystem services value in Cheng-Yu Economic Zone,  Southwest China.
    cje    2012, 31 (01): 180-186.  
    Abstract5079)      PDF(pc) (3216KB)(622)       Save
    Cheng-Yu Economic Zone is an ecological barrier of the upper reaches of Yangtze River, but its eco-environment is fragile. It is of significance to maintain and improve the ecosystem services of the Zone. Based on the satellite images taken in 2000 and 2007, and with the help of RS and GIS techniques, this paper quantitatively analyzed the spatiotemporal variations of land use in the Zone, and by using modified ecosystem services value coefficient, evaluated the dynamic changes of land ecosystem services, aimed to understand the responses of the ecosystem services to land use change and to provide useful information for policy maker concerned with the sustainable development of the Zone. In 2000-2007, the constructive land showed the fastest increase (1044.5 km2), with an annual increasing rate 5.3%, forestland had the largest increase (2908.7 km2), with an annual increasing rate 0.5%, grassland, water body, and unused land decreased with an annual rate of -2.0%, -0.7%, and -2.9%, respectively, while cropland shrank largest (2388.9 km2), with an annual rate -0.3%. Owing to the land use change, the total land ecosystem services value had somewhat increase, with the total value increased from 318.84 billion Yuan in 2000 to 321.15 billion Yuan in 2007. The increase of the total value was mainly contributed to the conversion from other land use types to forestland and from cropland and grassland to other land use types, while the decrease of the ecosystem services function was mainly due to the conversion from forestland to other land use types. To maintain the land ecosystem services function and sustainable development of the Zone, it would be necessary to protect the land use types with high ecosystem services value (e.g, forestland and wetland).
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    Life table of natural Ginkgo biloba population in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve.
    cje    2011, 30 (01): 53-58.  
    Abstract5055)      PDF(pc) (541KB)(763)       Save
    Based on the population life table and the theory of survival analysis, the static life table of Ginkgo biloba population in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve of Zhejiang Province was compiled by applying the age class structure represented by DBH class and the smoothing out technique. The mortality rate curve, killing power curve, survival rate curve, and survival function curve were also analyzed to reveal the population’s quantitative dynamics. There was a fluctuation in the structure of G. biloba population. The survival curve of the population tended to the type of Deevey Ⅱ, and the individuals at adult stage were abundant. The mortality rate curve and killing power curve in the lifespan had similar variation trend, all with the peaks in 6th and 11th age class periods. The survival rate of the population decreased monotonically, whereas the cumulative mortality rate was in adverse. The survival functional curve showed that the G. biloba population grew poorly in early age period and stably in middle age period, but declined in old age period.
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