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辽东湾小凌河口湿地土壤微生物群落结构与微生态环境因子的关系

张广帅1,闫吉顺1*,赵全民1,于永海1,于秀波2,3,张全军2,3,蔡悦荫1,宫玮1   

  1. 1国家海洋环境监测中心, 辽宁大连 116023; 2中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 中科院生态系统网络观测与模拟重点实验室, 北京 100101; 3中国科学院大学, 北京 100049)
  • 发布日期:2020-07-10

Relationship between soil microbial community structure and micro-ecological environmental factors in Xiaolinghe estuarine wetland of Liaodong Bay.

ZHANG Guang-shuai1, YAN Ji-shun1*, ZHAO Quan-min1, YU Yong-hai1, YU Xiu-bo2,3, ZHANG Quan-jun2,3, CAI Yue-yin1, GONG Wei1   

  1. (1National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, Dalian 116023, Liaoning, China; 2Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; 3University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China).
  • Published:2020-07-10

摘要: 为揭示河口湿地微生态环境因子对土壤微生物群落的影响,在辽东湾小凌河口设置5条监测样带,每条监测样带设置4个监测样点,其中1条(样带G)位于围海养殖圩堤附近,另外4条(样带A、B、C、D)依次从圩堤向河口水域靠近,采集了不同样带的土壤样品,利用磷脂脂肪酸法分析其土壤微生物群落结构分异特征。结果表明:养殖塘圩堤显著改变了湿地土壤微生态环境特征和微生物群落结构,圩堤以外湿地土壤微生物丰度沿样带环境梯度先升高后降低,最高值(样带C)比近河口水域区域(样带D)细菌、革兰氏阳性细菌、革兰氏阴性细菌和真菌丰度分别增加了33.33%、22.00%、50.07%和35.65%;土壤微生物群落结构与钾离子(K+)、钙离子(Ca2+)、总氮、镁离子(Mg2+)及硝态氮呈显著相关关系;方差分解分析显示,盐基离子累积可以解释微生物群落结构变异的72.9%,随着土壤中镁钙离子比(Mg2+/Ca2+)的升高,真菌、放线菌和革兰氏阳性细菌丰度呈幂函数显著降低。因此,河口湿地围海养殖和湿地盐基离子的变化对土壤微生物群落结构产生了深刻影响。

关键词: 输出系数法, 实测数据, 胡家山小流域, 坡度, 非点源污染

Abstract: To reveal the response of soil microbial community to changes of micro-ecological environment, five monitoring transects were set up in Xiaolinghe estuarine wetland of Liaodong Bay, with four monitoring plots in each transect. The transect G was close to the polder embankment of the culture pond, while the other four transects (Transects A, B, C, D) were situated in proper sequence towards the water area with an interval of 100 m. Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) analysis was applied to determine soil microbial community structure. Results showed that the polder embankment significantly affected soil microbial community structure and microecological environmental factors. Abundance of soil microbes of the tidal flat outside the polder embankment increased first and then decreased along the direction from the shore towards the water area. Total bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and fungi of transect C were significantly 33.33%, 22.00%, 50.07% and 35.65% higher than that in transect D (close to water area). PLFA signatures were significantly correlated with soil K+, Ca2+, total N, Mg2+ and NO3--N concentrations. Results of variation partitioning analysis showed that soil base ion contents together explained 72.9% of the variation of microbial community structure. Abundance of fungi, actinomyces and Gram-positive bacteria significantly decreased by means of a negative power function with increasing Mg2+/Ca2+. In summary, polder embankment and base ion content had significant effects on soil microbial community structure.

Key words: export coefficient method, measured data, slope gradient., Hujiashan small watershed, non-point source pollution,