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长白山杨桦林不同蚯蚓类群对电击采样的响应及其影响因素

申智锋,于彬彬,李素莉,刘舒,朱丹丹,傅声雷,张卫信*   

  1. (河南大学环境与规划学院, 河南开封 475004)
  • 发布日期:2020-07-10

Responses and the influencing factors of different earthworm groups to  electroshocking sampling in poplar-birch forests in Changbai Mountains.

SHEN Zhi-feng, YU Bin-bin, LI Su-li, LIU Shu, ZHU Dan-dan, FU Sheng-lei, ZHANG Wei-xin*   

  1. (College of Environment and Planning, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004, Henan, China).
  • Published:2020-07-10

摘要: 电击法采集蚯蚓对环境相对友好,但电击效率可能因立地条件和蚯蚓类群而变化,进而限制了电击法的广泛应用。本研究于2017年11月上旬采用电击法配合手拣法对长白山3个不同森林发育阶段的杨桦林的蚯蚓群落进行了调查,分析了森林发育阶段、蚯蚓生态型、蚯蚓种群大小以及发育阶段、土壤温湿度状况等对电击效率的影响。结果表明:不同森林发育阶段蚯蚓的电击效率不同,其中40年生杨桦林电击效率最高,其蚯蚓数量和生物量电击效率分别为68.5%和57.4%;表栖型的诺登爱胜蚓(Eisenia nordenskioldi)活动能力最强,电击效率高达100%;内-深栖型的长白山杜拉蚓(Drawida changbaishanensis)在实验期间处于蜷曲休眠状态,电击效率低至0;而内栖型的安德爱胜蚓(Eisenia andrei)的电击效率为22.2%~58.3%;安德爱胜蚓种群大小与电击效率无明显的相关关系(其中,数量:r=0.139, P=0.381,生物量:r=0.025, P=0.877);安德爱胜蚓成体的电击效率显著高于幼体(P=0.014);土壤温度对电击效率有显著的影响,当土壤温度低于6 ℃时电击效率为0;当土壤温度为6~10 ℃时,电击效率为34.6%±13.1%,当土壤温度大于10 ℃时,电击效率为46.0%±8.7%;土壤湿度对电击效率无显著影响。总的来说,电击效率与蚯蚓活动能力的强弱有关。蚯蚓生态型、个体发育阶段及土壤温度在一定程度上影响了蚯蚓的活动能力,进而影响蚯蚓的电击效率。因此,可以根据不同蚯蚓类群活动能力的不同,利用电击法选择性地控制野外蚯蚓群落结构,以开展不同蚯蚓类群生态功能的长期实验研究。

关键词: 大管鞭虾, 饵料组成, 摄食强度, 食性变化, 营养级

Abstract: Electroshocking is an environment-friendly approach for earthworm sampling. However, the application of this approach is limited by the varied efficiency of electroshocking across stand conditions and earthworm community composition. In early November of 2017, we investigated earthworm community composition in the poplarbirch forests at three different developmental stages in Changbai Mountains using electroshocking and hand-sorting extraction. We examined the effects of potential factors, such as forest developmental stage, ecological group, population size, life stage of earthworms, soil temperature, and soil moisture on electroshocking efficiency. The electroshocking efficiency of earthworm varied across different stages of forest development. The electroshocking efficiency of earthworms was the highest in the 40-year-old poplar-birch forest, being 68.5% and 57.4% for earthworm number and biomass, respectively.Eisenia nordenskioldi, an epigeic species, was most active and had an electroshocking efficiency of 100%. In contrast, Drawida changbaishanensis, an endo-anecic species, was dormant during the experiment, with electroshocking efficiency down to 0. The electroshocking efficiency of the slow endogeic species Eisenia andrei ranged from 22.2% to 58.3%. There was no significant correlation between Eisenia andrei population size and electroshocking efficiency for both the number (r=0.139, P=0.381) and the biomass (r=0.025,P=0.877). The electroshocking efficiency of adults of Eisenia andrei was significantly higher than that of juveniles (P=0.014). Soil temperature had a significant effect on the electroshocking efficiency, with the value being 0 when soil temperature <6 ℃, 34.6%±13.1% when soil temperature 6-10 ℃, and 46.0%±8.7% when soil temperature>10 ℃. Soil moisture did not affect electroshocking efficiency of earthworms. Overall, the electroshocking efficiency was closely related to the activity of earthworms. Earthworm ecological group, life stage, and soil temperature affected earthworm activity, and consequently changed the electroshocking efficiency of earthworms. Due to different sensitivity of earthworms to electroshocking, long-term experimental study on the ecological functions of different earthworm groups can be performed through different manipulations of earthworm community structure using the electroshocking approach.

Key words: Solenocera melantho, diet composition, feeding intensity, feeding change, trophic-level.