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应用生态学报 ›› 2003, Vol. ›› Issue (11): 1813-1819.

• 研究论文 •    下一篇

长白山落叶松和白桦-沼泽生态交错带群落演替规律研究

牟长城   

  1. 东北林业大学森林资源与环境学院, 哈尔滨 150040
  • 收稿日期:2003-01-24 修回日期:2003-06-05
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点基础研究发展规划项目(2002CB412502);中国科学院知识创新工程重大项目(KZCX1SW01);中国科学院知识创新重要方向项目(KZCX2406);国家自然科学基金重大项目(39899370);黑龙江省科技攻关资助项目(GAO2B60106)

Succession of Larix olgensis and Betula platyphlla-marsh ecotone communities in Changbai Mountain

MU Changcheng   

  1. Department of Forest Resources and Environment, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China
  • Received:2003-01-24 Revised:2003-06-05

摘要: 研究了长白山落叶松、白桦沼泽生态交错带群落演替规律.通过野外观测和建立斑块状态、林木蒸腾量与林木年龄的相关模型,利用相关模型定量地分析斑块和林木蒸腾量随林木年龄增长的动态变化过程,并分析了区域气候变化和群落演替的关系,探讨森林沼泽交错群落对湿地生境改造作用、湿地生境的中生化过程以及区域气候变暖对森林湿地演替的影响机制,揭示森林沼泽生态交错带群落的演替规律.结果表明,斑块宽度、高度、面积、体积随林木年龄增长均呈现三次式相关关系,林木蒸腾量随林木年龄增长呈现幂函数相关关系.落叶松、白桦沼泽交错群落经过60年左右时间发育,斑块将不断扩大,使地势平均升高0.405~0.590m;林木蒸腾量也不断增大,平均降低水位1.050~1.442m,森林湿地生境将演变为中生化的森林生境.同时,区域气候变暖与森林树种向湿地侵入存在密切关系.区域气候变暖将加快森林向湿地侵入进程,进而森林沼泽交错群落在相对较短的时间内(50~60年)将演替为森林群落.

关键词: 长白山, 森林沼泽生态交错带, 区域气候变化, 演替规律

Abstract: The succession of communities within the ecotone between forest and marsh in Changbai Mountain was studied to identify the interrelation between the succession of ecotone communities and the mesophytization of the ecotone. The succession regime of the ecotone communities was studies by patch size (the volume of each mound) and age class of different tree species, water transmission from soil to atmosphere through the transpiration of different tree species, and regional climate warming and community succession. The results demonstrated that both patch size and water loss through transpiration were increased with age class. The increased volume of mounds and water loss through transpiration of trees were converted to the raised ground surface level and the lowered ground surface water level. Within60 years, the ground surface level would be raised by 0.405~0.590 m, depending on the distance to the marsh, and the aboveground water level would be lowered by 1.050~1.442 m. Climate had a great effect on the community dynamics. Community succession and regional climate warming intensified the mesophytization process of forest marsh ecotone, and the ecotone communities would eventually change into forest communities within a relatively short period.

Key words: Changbai Mountain, Ecotone between forest and marsh, Regional climate change, Succession

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